What are the common types of lathes?
What are the common types of lathes?
Depending on the application and structure, lathes are mainly divided into horizontal lathes and floor lathes, vertical lathes, turret lathes, single-axis automatic lathes, multi-axis automatic and semi-automatic lathes, profiling lathes and multi-tool lathes and various specializations. Lathes, such as camshaft lathes, crankshaft lathes, wheel lathes, and shovel lathes. Among all lathes, horizontal lathes are the most widely used. The horizontal lathe has a dimensional tolerance of up to IT8~IT7 and a surface roughness Ra of 1.6μm. In recent years, computer technology has been widely used in the machine tool manufacturing industry, and there have been electromechanical integration products such as CNC lathes and turning machining centers.
Wide range of processing objects, large adjustment range of spindle speed and feed rate, can process the inner and outer surfaces, end faces and internal and external threads of the workpiece. This type of lathe is mainly operated by workers and has low production efficiency. It is suitable for single-piece, small batch production and repair workshops.
Turret and rotary lathe
The utility model has a turret or a returning tool holder capable of loading a plurality of tools, and can perform various processes by using different tools in sequence in a single clamping of the workpiece, and is suitable for batch production.
Automatically complete multi-process machining of small and medium-sized workpieces according to a certain program, can automatically load and unload, repeat processing a batch of the same workpiece, suitable for large batch, mass production.
Multi-tool semi-automatic lathe
There are single axis, multi-axis, horizontal and vertical. The layout of the single-axis horizontal type is similar to that of a conventional lathe, but the two sets of tool holders are respectively mounted on the front, back or the top of the main shaft for machining the disc, ring and shaft workpieces, and the productivity is 3 to 5 times higher than that of the ordinary lathe.
It can automatically complete the machining cycle of the workpiece according to the shape and size of the sample or sample (see the profiling machine). It is suitable for small batch and batch production of more complex workpieces, and the productivity is 10~15 times higher than that of the ordinary lathe. There are multiple tool holders, multi-axis, chuck type, vertical type and so on.
The main axis is perpendicular to the horizontal plane, the workpiece is clamped on a horizontal rotary table, and the tool holder moves on the beam or column. It is suitable for processing large, heavy and difficult workpieces installed on ordinary lathes. It is divided into two categories: single column and double column.
Shovel tooth lathe
At the same time of turning, the tool holder periodically reciprocates radially for the forming tooth surface of the forklift milling cutter, the hob, and the like. Usually with a shovel attachment, the small grinding wheel driven by a separate motor shovel the tooth surface.
Lathes that machine specific surfaces of certain types of workpieces, such as crankshaft lathes, camshaft lathes, wheel lathes, axle lathes, roll lathes, and ingot lathes.
Mainly used for turning machining, but with special parts and accessories, it can also be used for boring, milling, drilling, inserting, grinding, etc. It has the characteristics of "one machine and more energy" and is suitable for engineering vehicles, ships or mobile repair stations. Repair work.
The left end of the saddle lathe at the front of the headbox is sunken and can accommodate large diameter parts. The shape of the lathe is two-head high, low in the middle, and looks like a saddle, so it is called a saddle lathe. The saddle lathe is suitable for machining parts with large radial dimensions and small axial dimensions. It is suitable for turning the outer circle, inner hole, end face, slot and metric, inch, modulus, warp thread, and drilling and boring. , reaming and other processes, especially suitable for single-piece, batch production enterprises. The saddle lathe can process larger diameter workpieces in the saddle groove. The machine tool guides are hardened and finely ground for easy and reliable operation. The lathe has the characteristics of high power, high speed, strong rigidity, high precision and low noise.
The instrument lathe instrument lathe is a simple horizontal lathe. Generally speaking, the largest workpiece machining machine with a diameter of less than 250mm belongs to the instrument lathe. The instrument lathe is divided into normal type, hexagonal type and finishing type. This type of lathe is mainly operated by workers and is suitable for mass production of single-piece and simple parts.