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What is the difference between the 3 aixs, the 3+2 aixs, and the 5 aixs?

What is the difference between the 3 aixs, the 3+2 aixs, and the 5 aixs?
Update Time:2019-01-31

What is the difference between the 3 aixs, the 3+2 aixs, and the 5 aixs?

What is the difference between the 3 aixs, the 3+2  aixs, and the 5 aixs?

What are the differences between the three-axis, 3+2-axis, and 5-axis machining solutions that we usually mention? Let me introduce you first:

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3-axis machining method

The 3-axis machining is performed by the linear feed axes X, Y, and Z. Machining features: The cutting tool orientation remains constant during movement along the entire cutting path. The cutting state of the tip is not perfect in real time.

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3+2 axis machining method

The two rotary axes first fix the cutting tool in an inclined position and then process it by the feed axes X, Y, Z. This machine is also called a five-axis machine that can be programmed using Siemens' CYCLE800 function. CYCLE800 is a static plane transformation that defines a rotating work plane in space with 3+2 axis machine machining (eg turret or turntable). In this work plane, you can program 2D ​​or 3D machining operations.


Machining features: The rotary axis is always rotated until the machining plane is perpendicular to the tool axis. The machining plane remains fixed during machining.


5-axis machining method

The 5-axis machining is a linear interpolation motion of the feed axes X, Y, Z and any five of the rotation axes A, B, and C around X, Y, and Z. Siemens' motion conversion instruction TRAORI is well supported for 5-axis conversion.


Machining features: The tool direction can be optimized during the movement along the entire path, while the tool moves linearly. In this way, the optimum cutting state is maintained throughout the path.


Simultaneous machining of 28 parts with five axes

How does the advantage of the five-axis machine manifest? Here is an example of a Haas UMC-750P machine that processes 28 parts at the same time. The cycle time is reduced by combining the design of the turntable and the fixture and the three machining faces of the part in one machining process in a five-axis machining program.


The turntable can expand the original processing space by precise positioning. Well-designed fixtures not only increase the efficiency of the machining, but also reduce the idleness of the machine and allow the operator to pull it out.


For example, the first three faces of a part such as the following figure are processed. If the vise is used, each part takes a total of 264 seconds (the clamping time is not counted).


By designing a more compact fixture and making full use of the machining space provided by the turntable, you have the opportunity to machine 28 parts at a time.


In the fabrication of the fixture, an aluminum alloy with a size of 114mm*114mm*550mm is selected as the base body, and the positioning pin is selected as the positioning, and the pressing fixture occupying a smaller processing space is selected for faster clamping.


The four faces of the base are then milled, one locating pin hole is machined for each part, two slots are used to avoid the locking clamp, and two threaded holes are used for locking. This is all the manufacturing steps.


The complete set of fixtures consists of: 28 locating pins, 56 locating locking blocks (reusable), 56 screws, and wrenches. This fixture design can reduce the original processing time to 264 seconds to 202 seconds (the clamping time is not counted). This means that processing time has been reduced by 23.5%.


Not only that, because the machining program has combined the three machining faces of the part into one machining program, the cycle time of the single program becomes 95 minutes, during which the machine keeps processing without waiting for the operator frequently. Clamping, which will greatly reduce the labor intensity of the operator.